WRC Report No. Enter an existing tag to add this content to one or more of your current collections. Narrative analysis on the other hand focuses on the way individuals present their accounts of themselves, and views self-narrations both as constructions and claims of identity (Linde 1993). There was also one frame referring to heavy rainfall (climate-related factor) as a cause of flooding (Table 1). Nigerian authorities are considering declaring a state of emergency, saying more floods could hit in the coming days and weeks as heavy rains continue. geographic coverage, reporting narratives of actors rather than journalist opinion, etc). https://doi.org/10.1080/07900620500258133, Jones MD, McBeth MK (2010) A narrative policy framework: clear enough to be wrong? We identify three hydraulically diverse regions in Africa with recent large scale flood events: Lokoja, Nigeria; Idah, Nigeria; and Chemba, Mozambique. 2011). The control mindset is also evident in the fact that behavioural measures is one of the least mentioned (only higher than ecosystem-based approach) and resonates with an authoritative view that people have already developed negative environmental habits and will probably not behave correctly. 2007; Surminski and Oramas-Dorta 2014). We are pleased to present the findings of the Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA), conducted at the request and direction of the Federal Republic of Nigeria with techni- However, this is often mostly shrouded in corruption (Gwaza 2014). � n Societal pathway (27 frames) was the main approach suggested as solution, followed by institutional and structural approaches with 17 and 13 frames, respectively. This suggests that the nature of perceived causal factors of flooding, whilst an important determinant of strategies that actors will suggest be adopted in flood management, is not the only influence at play. The absence of such within the framing of government and local actors especially could imply this is not being considered within policy development. Nat Clim Chang 6(6):627–634. https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.3380070109, CAS  Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 16(2):349–369. The impact of the 2012 flooding was very high in terms of human, material, and … %PDF-1.3 Institutional measures draw on laws, regulations, government policies, programmes and services, and economic incentives and mechanisms to encourage or mandate adaptation. Nigeria faces flooding almost every year. 2013). It is suggested that frames simplify the discursive space and are the medium through which an actor construct their narratives. https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2005.10708037, Olorunfemi F (2011) Managing flood disasters under a changing climate: lessons from Nigeria and South Africa. This does not fully mirror contemporary thinking in flood management that also tends to emphasise climate-related causes of flood, their inevitability, especially considering climate change and consequent changes in extreme events (Hirabayashi et al. nigeria-ne_floods_26_august_2019.pdf ; This report is produced by OCHA Nigeria in collaboration with humanitarian partners. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The frequency, severity, and spread of these floods are increasing. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963662516636041, Di Baldassarre G, Montanari A, Lins H, Koutsoyiannis D, Brandimarte L, Blöschl G (2010) Flood fatalities in Africa: from diagnosis to mitigation. Newspaper articles would not yield this full breadth of data needed; therefore, discourse analysis was not undertaken in this study. Google Scholar, Adelekan IO (2010) Vulnerability of poor urban coastal communities to flooding in Lagos, Nigeria. First, how are the causes of flooding explained by the actor(s) within the news article? https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916588202002, Terpstra T, Gutteling JM (2008) Households’ perceived responsibilities in flood risk management in the Netherlands. endobj 2007) does not result in conflicts (Swart and Raes 2007) that will undermine flood management. Overall, the multilateral actors’ narrative on causal factors was more evenly balanced between human factors and climate-related factors. The 2017 Benue State flooding took place in September 2017 in Central Nigeria. including Nigeria, causing flooding and increasing the water level of Niger and Benue rivers (see Section 1.2). Flood risk is not just based on history, but on a number of factors: rainfall, riverflow and tidal-surge data, topography, flood control measures, and changes due to construction of building and development on flood plain areas. In other words, our perception plays a role in the way we interpret and frame an issue. Structural measures rely on engineered, technological and ecosystem-based investments to reduce vulnerability. on unethical environmental habits” (Olowoopejo 2016). vol Book, Whole, 5th edn. /Prev 994787 2001) and Ireland (The Office of Public Works 2004). It is noteworthy that both dominant strategies (structural, institutional) such as enforcing laws and building dams can be anticipatory, but also can reflect a flood control mindset that does not emphasise preparedness for inevitable events and does require significant investment. 35 24 A similar approach, adjudged as successful, has been adopted in South Africa (Viljoen et al. NISER Research Seminar Series, NISER, Ibadan. Although studies have documented flooding incidents that occurred more recently (Bashir et al. View full document [pdf 123.64 KB]  Capacity Development Disaster Risk Management GIS & Mapping Space & Aerial Technology Urban Risk & Planning Flood Nigeria. This incident has increased the interest of relevant actors including local communities, government and donor agencies in urban flooding risk management issues. Flooding is clearly partly driven by climate-related factors, and projections are that urban flooding will worsen as Nigeria’s climate is likely to see growing shifts in temperature, rainfall, storms and sea levels throughout the twenty-first century (Abiodun et al. This narrative directly suggests that climate change is a major reason for the recent upsurge in flooding in Nigerian cities. J Sustain Dev 5(7):69–79. 2017; Wilby and Keenan 2012). incidence in Nigeria is 380.8/1,000 (2015) In Kogi state(PMI 2017)., flood-affected people reported that they had not received a distribution of mosquito nets in … It is only within the NGO framing that we find all the causal factor frames (disregard for laws, deliberate opening of dams, poor design, unexplained rainfall, unexplained rise in water levels, urbanisation and climate change). The Secretary to the Abia Government said. Societal strategies use education, awareness, networks and human-capital building to promote changes to individual or community behaviour that enhance resilience. In another instance, a local indicated he is ready to die rather than respond to the warning by emergency agency: “I have been living all my life here where do I go from here and what do I fall back on to fend for my family? Reg Environ Chang 15(5):801–814. 1, Abowei J.F.N 2 and CHARLES, E 2* 1Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University,Wilberforce https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2003.08.022, Vanguard (2013) 2013 Rainfall: anxiety reigns over imminent flood. Thus, for most actors, their understanding of cause will influence the approach selected. 58 0 obj 35 0 obj There are broadly four approaches to content analysis of news media articles, namely semiotic, discourse, narrative and frame analysis (Devereux 2013). Whilst a high proportion of causal frames (21%) referred to high or unexplained rainfall, which is an indication of climate-related causes, on only two frames do actors directly link causal factors to climate change. 1.6 Scope of the Study. vol 25, vol Book, Whole. Flooding is a major problem facing Southern African region. Whilst there were disparities in the framing and narratives, the narratives of governmental and corporate actors were highly consistent. Olalekan Adekola. 2005). This subtle disparity between direct actors and those with funding or mediating roles calls for caution, especially when it comes to building consensus and evolving strategies on flood management in developing regions. The interrelations of institutions, networks, and cognition in the dynamics of markets. https://www.scribd.com/document/338564425/Frame-Analysis-as-a-Discourse-Method-Framing-Climate-Change-Politics-Mat-Hope, Hutter G, Leibenath M, Mattissek A (2014) Governing through resilience? 1988) since the way an entity perceives a problem is likely to determine the policies and programmes that they support to address it (Niles et al. (2014) that in any policy environment, narratives are as important to policy success as the actions that are taken. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Am Polit Sci Rev 91(03):567–583. Glob Environ Chang 23(6):1752–1760. Soc Sci 3(2):272–287. Available at http://thenationonlineng.net/obiano-sets-28-idps-readiness-flooding/.
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