[15] About 132 brown bears reside in the park and preserve, based on a density of about one bear per 100 square miles (260 km2). It is possible, however, that pilots [19], Gates of the Arctic National Park & Preserve, Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, List of national parks of the United States, "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011", "Annual Park Ranking Report for Recreation Visitors", "Hunting - Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve", "Title 36: Parks, Forests, and Public Property", "Gate of the Arctic National Park and Preserve", "Creation of Gates of the Arctic National Park & Preserve", Full list of all state parks, recreation areas and sites, historic parks and sites, and marine parks, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gates_of_the_Arctic_National_Park_and_Preserve&oldid=992418416, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 04:30. The park lies above the Arctic circle. During the long winters temperatures can reach −75 °F (−59 °C), but can reach 90 °F (32 °C) for a short time in summer. One of the biggest The majority of Gates of the Arctic is designated as national park, in which only subsistence hunting by local rural residents is permitted. [12], The park includes much of the central and eastern Brooks Range. [11], The boreal forest extends to about 68 degrees north latitude, characterized by black and white spruce mixed with poplar. The plant hardiness zone at Anaktuvuk Pass Ranger Station is 2b with an average annual extreme minimum temperature of -42.6 °F (-41.4 °C). Gates of the Arctic National Park lies in the Alaska time zone Random Facts About Gates of the Arctic On November 16, 1978, Gates of the Arctic National Monument was … A series of bills were considered to deal with conservation land proposals authorized under ANCSA, but the legislation that would become the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) was held up in Congress in the late 1970s. [11] The Nunamiut people, who had left much of their traditional homelands following a crash in the caribou populations in the early 1900s, resumed a relatively isolated subsistence way of life after returning to the mountains in the late 1930s. [1] Er umfasst eine große unberührte Wildnis in den Endicott und den Schwatka Mountains der Brookskette von Alaska. To hunt and trap in the preserve, a person must have all required lice… The park headquarters is in Fairbanks. When Congress established Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve in 1980 it protected a vast and undeveloped area of superlative natural beauty and intact ecosystems. The land is home to Alaska Natives who have relied on the land and caribou for 11,000 years. Although there aren't any established campgrounds in Gates of the Arctic National Park, visitors can camp in the park. [11], The earliest Inupiat people appeared about 1200 AD at the coast and spread to the Brooks Range, becoming the Nunamiut. [5][6] Park Service operations in the park are managed from the Bettles Ranger Station, to the south of the park. All through the 1970s, conservationists and the National Park Service waited for the passage of the Alaska National Interest Land Conservation Act, which was designed to create or expand fifteen Alaska parks. Owing to its remoteness and lack of supportive infrastructure, the park is the least visited national park in the U.S., and one of the least visited areas in the entire U.S. National Park System, which also includes national monuments, recreation areas, preserves, and historic sites. I doubt that my visit to both parks was known to the national parks system. A detached portion of the park surrounds the outlying Fortress Mountain and Castle Mountain to the north of the park. In 2016, the park received just 10,047 visitors, while Grand Canyon National Park received nearly 6 million visitors (about 600 times as many) in the same year.[4]. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve encompasses 8.4 million acres of wilderness. "[18] Marshall spent time in Wiseman during the early 1930s, publishing an account of the place in his 1933 book Arctic Village. Unusual for a U.S. national park, some 1,500 people reside in 10 small communities in the park's Marshall was no less enthusiastic when describing the mountains, rivers, and valleys of the Brooks Range, particularly the stretch along the North Fork of the Koyukuk, where he named two adjacent peaks the "Gates of the Arctic." He used northern forest research as a pretext for mountain climbing, mapping uncharted waterways, and mingling with the Alaska Native people and gold mining sourdoughs of the Koyukuk. [3] The wilderness area adjoins the Noatak Wilderness. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve lies to the west of the Dalton Highway, centered on the Brooks Range and covering the north and south slopes of the mountains. Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge is near the park's southeast boundary. The Mesa site at Iteriak Creek has yielded evidence of occupation between 11,500 and 10,300 years before the present. 7,263,000 acres (2,939,000 ha) are protected in the Gates of the Arctic Wilderness.[11]. [10] About 259,000 acres (105,000 ha) of the park and preserve are owned by native corporations or the State of Alaska. Important Dates in Gates of the Arctic National Park History: 1929 – Famous American forester Robert “Bob” Marshall coins the name “Gates of the Arctic” upon discovering a pass between … Marshall's writings inspired later wilderness enthusiasts to push for preservation of a vast section of the Brooks Range as Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve lies to the west of the Dalton Highway, centered on the Brooks Range and covering the north and south slopes of the mountains. The park is the second largest in the US at 8,472,506 acres (13,238 sq mi; 34,287 km2), slightly larger in area than Belgium. A few small mining operations were established in the early 20th century, never amounting to much. [8], Ten small communities outside the park's boundaries are classified as "resident zone communities" and depend on park resources for food and livelihood. They form the largest contiguous wilderness in the United States together. The colors of the tundra were turning and the variety of berries was amazing. After studying the area's natural and cultural landscapes, the National Park Service identified the central Brooks Range as a parkland candidate. The Establishment of Gates of the Arctic National Park Fifty years later, the land was established as a national park. In 1968, Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall urged President Lyndon B. Johnson to use his authority under the Antiquities Act of 1906 to designate Gates of the Arctic and other areas in Alaska as national monuments - a parting conservation gift to the nation during the last days of his administration. Owing to its remoteness and lack of supportive infrastructure, the park is the least visited national park in the U.S., and one of the least visited areas in the entire U.S. National Park System, which also includes national monuments, recreation areas, preserves, and historic sites. Wilderness advocates were also concerned that oil development might destroy one of the nation's last large wild areas before it could be appreciated by the American people. When Marshall first traveled to the isolated mining camp of Wiseman in northern Alaska, he was already a prominent wilderness advocate. The park includes the Endicott Mountains and part of the Schwatka Mountains. Together, the environmentalists and the traditionalists worked to block early oil pipeline construction plans that were ill-adapted to the northern climate and soil conditions. Nowhere else in North The country's northernmost park protects an expanse of pure wilderness in Alaska's Brooks Range and has no park facilities. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve- Introduction The Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve was established in December 1980 and it is the second-largest park in the USA spread around 8,472,506 acres housing the northern tip of the Rocky Mountains, Endicott and the Schwatka Mountains. [17] The Gwich'in people, a Northern Athabaskan group also lived in the area in the last 1000 years, moving south of the park in historic times. Why is Gates of the Arctic a National Park? In 1980 Congress passed ANILCA, and the monument became Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve on December 2, 1980. [17] That year, Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall recommended to President Lyndon B. Johnson that Johnson use the Antiquities Act to proclaim a national monument in the Brooks Range and other Alaskan locations, but Johnson declined. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve in north-central Alaska provides a true wilderness experience for those who travel here for premier backpacking and packrafting experiences. This is a land of multiple complexities and amazing contrasts. Sport hunting is only permitted in the national preserve. To hunt and trap in the preserve, a person must have all required licenses and permits and follow all other state regulations. Der Nationalpark Gates of the Arctic (Tore zur Arktis, englisch Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve) ist nach dem Wrangell-St.-Elias-Nationalpark der zweitgrößte Nationalpark der USA. His wilderness philosophy defined wild places as essential not only for ecological health but for human happiness as well. However, Johnson balked at the idea, and the process of making the proposals a reality was postponed. The hope of this trip It extends to the east as far as the Middle Fork of the Koyukuk River, which is paralleled by the Dalton Highway and the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. The Dalton Highway (Alaska State Highway 11) comes within five miles (8 km) of the park's eastern boundary, but requires a river crossing to reach the park from the road. There are no roads in Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve. [6] The Arctic Interagency Visitor Center in nearby Coldfoot is open from late May to early September, providing information on the parks, preserves and refuges of the Brooks Range, Yukon Valley and the North Slope. Gates of the Arctic National Park is the northernmost national park in the U.S. and the second largest at 13,238 square miles. Caribou are important as a food source to native peoples. The naturalist and author Olaus Murie urged that some vestiges of Alaska's backcountry be saved before industrial progress claimed them. The Gates of the Arctic National Park is a national park in Alaska, which was established in December 1980. This huge sanctuary is home to bears and moose and remains much as it was before man set foot there. We examined blood smears of 173 rodents and 33 shrews captured at 4 sites in the Gates of the Arctic National Park, northern Alaska, in summer 2002. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve in Alaska is so remote that visitors cannot drive into the park. [19], Proposals for a national park in the Brooks Range first emerged in the 1960s, and in 1968 a National Park Service survey team recommended the establishment of a 4,100,000-acre (1,700,000 ha) park in the area. The park contains mountains such as the Arrigetch Peaks and Mount Igikpak. This park spans 8.5 million acres in size making it the second largest national park in the United States after Wrangell Gates of the Arctic was initially designated as a national monument on December 1, 1978, before being redesignated as a national park and preserve upon passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Almost all of the park is designated as wilderness, with the exception of areas around Anaktuvuk Pass. It is also extremely remote, rugged, and huge in size holding the position as the second largest national park. According to the official website, Gates of the Arctic was established in 1980, “to preserve the vast, wild, undeveloped character and environmental integrity of Alaska’s central Brooks Range and to provide opportunities for wilderness recreation and traditional subsistence uses.” Map showing early proposal for Gates of the Arctic National Park boundary (click to enlarge) Bill Brown The National Park Service first began to consider a parkland in the central Brooks Range in the early 1960s, but it was not until 1968 that an NPS team surveyed the area and recommended a 4.1 million-acre, two-unit Gates of the Arctic National Park. There are no roads in Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve. Covering 8.5 million acres and encompassing six wild rivers, two national natural landmarks, the Noatak Denali sits below it at third with around 6 million acres. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve is the farthest north park in the nation. 101 Dunkel St Name Image Location Date established as park [5] [10] Area (2019) [11] Recreation visitors (2019) [8] Description Acadia Maine February 26, 1919 49,076.63 acres (198.6 km 2) 3,437,286 Covering most of Mount Desert Island and other coastal islands, Acadia features the tallest mountain on the Atlantic coast of the United States, granite peaks, ocean shoreline, woodlands, and lakes. There are no amenities, services or trail in this 8.4 million acre park, which was established in 1980 to help preserve the Arctic ecosystem. Gates of the Arctic National Park is actually last with 11,177 visitors (2017) but I have to wonder how they count them. [11], The Alaskan interior was not explored until the late 19th century, shortly before discovery of gold in the Klondike brought prospectors to Alaska. Located above the Arctic Circle is a wilderness wonderland known as the Gates of the Arctic National Park. These early planners attempted to adapt their proposals to the state's plans for an Arctic Transportation Corridor reaching north and south across the Brooks Range. Finally, in 1978, when time was running out for the bill, President Jimmy Carter stepped in and used his authority to designate these areas as national monuments. Consequently, on December 1, 1978 President Jimmy Carter used the Antiquities Act to proclaim much of the proposed new Alaskan parklands as national monuments, including Gates of the Arctic National Monument. He believed that designated wilderness areas would provide the last refuge for Alaska's traditional Native and pioneer lifestyles and that rather than "locking up the land," as wilderness critics charged, parks perpetuated frontier Alaska's social and cultural integrity, scenic beauty, and scientific values. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve is the second largest national site in the country encompassing approximately 8.5 million acres, which makes it slightly bigger than the whole of Belgium. He christened this portal the "Gates of the Arctic. Noatak National Preserve adjoins the western boundary, and the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska adjoins the northwest corner of the park. The park straddles the continental divide, separating the drainages of the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve is a U.S. National Park in Alaska.It is the northernmost national park in the U.S. (the entirety of the park lies north of the Arctic Circle) and the second largest at 13,238 miles (34,287 km²), about the same size as Switzerland.. As such, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve became the midsection of a nearly 800-mile swath of protected land covering the Brooks Range from end to end. 99701. [13] More than half a million caribou, including the Central Arctic, Western Arctic, Teshekpuk, and Porcupine herds, migrate through the central Brooks Range twice yearly, traveling north in summer, and south in winter. Courtesy of Susan Holly. Courtesy of the Bancroft Library, University of California Berkeley. After World War II, military installations, oil and mineral discoveries, and improved aviation technology brought rapid change to the land north of the Arctic Circle. During the 1960s and 1970s, the philosophy of wilderness preservation popularized by Marshall and the Muries combined with the concerns of a largely homegrown Alaskan conservation movement and area residents who wanted to protect their way of life. During the 1970’s he began hiking, backpacking and camping in the region which, in 1980, was designated Gates of the Arctic National Park. Learn about the geology, trees, mammals, birds, or other plants and wildlife of the area. During the 1950s, the expeditions that Olaus and his wife Mardy made in the eastern Brooks Range helped to generate support for creation of the Arctic National Wildlife Range (later renamed "Refuge"), and their wilderness advocacy helped the National Park Service to focus attention on arctic Alaska. As such, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve became the midsection of a nearly 800-mile swath of protected land covering the Brooks Range from end to end. [16], Nomadic peoples have inhabited the Brooks Range for as many as 12,500 years, living mainly on caribou and other wildlife. In 1949 the last two semi-nomadic bands came together in the valley of the Anaktuvuk River, and over the next decade established the community of Anaktuvuk Pass. During the 1930s, Marshall returned to Alaska three more times to live in Wiseman and explore the rugged terrain of the Koyukuk watershed and beyond to the continental divide. In the 1940s writer and researcher Olaus Murie proposed that Alaskan lands be preserved. Suite 110 [11], The park's name dates to 1929, when wilderness activist Bob Marshall, exploring the North Fork of the Koyukuk River, encountered a pair of mountains (Frigid Crags and Boreal Mountain), one on each side of the river. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve lies entirely north of the Arctic Circle. Fairbanks, AK To the south of the Brooks Range the Ambler-Chandalar Ridge, with associated valleys and lakes, runs east-west. Take Gates of the Arctic was established as a national park in 1980. There are 5 ways to get from Denali National Park and Preserve to Gates of the Arctic National Park by bus or plane Select an option below to see step-by-step directions and to compare ticket prices and travel times in Rome2rio's travel planner. Carter's actions held the conservation units in trust while Congress concluded its deliberations, and by 1980, Congress passed the land claims act, creating 106 million acres of new protected lands in Alaska. The Arctic small tool tradition (ASTt) of about 4,500 BP has also been documented. The park also features six Wild and Scenic Rivers: According to the Köppen climate classification system, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve has a Subarctic with Cool Summers and Year Around Rainfall Climate (Dfc). This trip was in August as opposed to July. [14] The park is the northernmost range limit for the Dall sheep. The Brooks Range occupies the central section of the park, running on an east-west line. Six years after our first visit to Gates of the Arctic National Park we returned. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve is an American national park that protects portions of the Brooks Range in northern Alaska. A late phase of the ASTt from between 2500 and 950 BP, the Ipuitak phase, has been documented in the park at the Bateman Site at Itkillik Lake. Marshall's quest for happiness led him to the Koyukuk region of the Alaska's Brooks Range where he found adventure and the companionship of local residents. NPS/GAAR Museum Collection. "For me and for thousands with similar inclinations," he wrote, "the most important passion of life is the overpowering desire to escape periodically from the strangling clutch of a mechanistic civilization." At its western end, the park abuts Noatak National Preserve, and on the east, beyond the Dalton Highway corridor, the expanded Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stretches to the Canadian border. Gates of the Arctic was named America [9] There are no established roads, trails, visitor facilities, or campgrounds in the park. A large part of the park has additional protection as the Gates of the Arctic Wilderness which covers 7,167,192 acres (2,900,460 ha). Gates of the Arctic butts up against Noatak National Preserve to the west, helping create one Despite pressure from mining and petroleum developers to create a relatively small park split by a pipeline corridor, the final boundaries drawn for Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve encompassed eight million contiguous acres, stretching nearly two hundred miles from the region surrounding the North Fork of the Koyukuk westward to include the upper reaches of the Kobuk and the Noatak Rivers. Many local residents in communities surrounding the Brooks Range were concerned that this change would be destructive and irreversible. Because there are no established trails in the Park and Preserve, good maps are extremely important. The only national park which is larger than Gates of the Arctic is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, which protects 13.2 million acres. The park is the northernmost national park in the United States, situated entirely north of the Arctic Circle. Some encampments of explorers and survey parties have been identified in the park. The northernmost section of the park includes small portions of the Arctic foothills tundra. During the 1970s the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) prompted serious examination of the disposition of lands held by the federal government. The Brooks Range has seen repeated glaciation, with the most recent called the Itkillik glaciation from about 24,000 years ago to roughly 1500 to 1200 years before the present. The majority of Gates of the Arctic is designated as national park, in which only subsistence hunting by local rural residents is permitted. From extreme weather to challenging travels, Gates of the Arctic is the least-visited national park in the United States for a reason - - and 2020 is … Trypanosoma spp. Sport hunting is only permitted in the national preserve. [11], Fauna include brown bears, black bears, muskoxen, moose, Dall sheep, timber wolves, wolverines, coyotes, lynxes, marmots, porcupines, river otters, red and Arctic fox species, beavers, snowshoe hares, muskrats, bald eagles, golden eagles, peregrine falcons, ospreys, great horned and northern hawk-owls. Camping is permitted throughout the park, but may be restricted by easements when crossing Native Corporation lands within the park. The early inspiration for the creation of a vast northern national park can be traced back to a U.S. Forest Service forester named Bob Marshall, who arrived in Alaska in 1929 looking for what he called "blank spaces on maps." Welcome to the Gates of the Arctic National Park Information. [7], The eastern boundary of the park generally follows the Dalton Highway at a distance of a few miles, with the westernmost part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 10 miles (16 km) farther east. Here you will find all you need to know about the natural history of the park. The park includes the Endicott Mountainsand part of the Schwatka Mountains. Its austere beauty and grandeur defy description. They are Alatna, Allakaket, Ambler, Anaktuvuk Pass, Bettles, Evansville, Hughes, Kobuk, Nuiqsut, Shungnak, and Wiseman. In 1933, Marshall published his study of daily life in Wiseman entitled Arctic Village, advertising to the world that he had discovered a kind of arctic utopia. The southernmost portion of the park includes the Kobuk-Selawik Lowlands, with the headwaters of the Kobuk River. Later sites from around 6,000 years before present have yielded projectile points, stone knives and net sinkers. These parklands represent a variety of ecotypes To the north of that line, which coincides with the spine of the Brooks Range, lies cold-arid land that has been described as "Arctic desert." Gates of Arctic, Alaska -- Wild rivers, glacier-carved valleys and caribou migrate on age-old trails, endless summer-lit nights.
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